Cancer therapeutic and preventive effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)
Author: Merlin N. Gnanapragasam
Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as Noni is a medicinal plant that has been used world wide for centuries. It is known to have a broad range of medicinal properties such as anti inflammatory, antihistamine, antifungal, antibiotic, antiviral, hypotensive and pain killing effects. Studies have also shown that Noni possess both cancer therapeutic (treating the illness) and preventive effects.
A considerable number of studies on the role of Noni in cancer treatment and prevention have been carried out so far and their results have been published in various reputed scientific journals. The purpose of this review is to identify and summarize the findings of these studies.
- Cancer therapeutic effects of Noni
There are many pre-clinical (in vitro and animal based) studies and a few clinical studies which elucidate the role of Noni in cancer treatment. These studies show that Noni can treat cancer by either acting directly on cancer cells by its cytotoxic properties or by creating a hostile environment by immunomodulation and antiangiogenesis.
2.1. Cytotoxic therapy
Cytotoxicity involves attacking the cancer cells directly by changing the cells biology so that the cells are either killed or are prevented from dividing.
Fong et al identified cytotoxic activity from Noni fruit extracts against a breast carcinoma cell line (MCF 7) and a colon carcinoma line (HCT 116). Furthermore, they isolated a novel glycoside demonstrating cytotoxic activity against a breast carcinoma cell line (MCF 7) and a colon carcinoma line (HCT 116). Morphological changes in the MCF 7 cells were reported to be indicative of apoptosis. Finally they explored the genetic basis for possible apoptosis. It was revealed that the active compounds in the Noni extract affect several genes of the apoptotic pathway and cell cycle, and as a result causes inhibition of cancer cell growth.
A study by Dr. Wang and co-workers demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of Noni fruit extract on cultured leukemia cell line at various concentrations. The cytotoxicity of Noni fruit juice on cultured cancer cells showed a dose dependent manner by inducing cancer cell necrosis at high doses and apoptosis at lower doses .
The Ras oncogenes occur in a wide variety of human malignancies. These oncogenes have been shown to be able to stimulate cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis.
Hiramatsu and colleagues reported that Damnacanthal, isolated from Noni roots, is an inhibitor of Ras function in K-Ras-NRK cells.
Hiwasa and coworkers examined the effects of damnacanthal on ultraviolet ray-induced apoptosis in ultraviolet-resistant human UVr-l cells. Pretreatment with damnacanthal followed by ultraviolet irradiation increased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK). Activation of SAPK and ERKs plays an important role in triggering apoptosis. Thus their activation might be characteristically related to the stimulatory effect of damnacanthal on ultraviolet-induced apoptosis.
Liu G et al reported that two glycosides extracted from Noni fruit juice are effective in inhibiting cell transformation induced by TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate) or EGF (Epidermal growth factor) in the mouse epidermal JB6 cell line. The inhibition was found to be associated with the inhibitory effects of these compounds on API activity. Recent studies have suggested that the transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) plays an important role in promoting carcinogenesis (cancer formation).
Noni is found to inhibit the existence or growth of cancer cells by manipulating the immune system.
Hirazumi, and coworkers at the University of Hawaii, reported ariticancer activity from polysaccharide-rich substance (Noni-ppt) from the fruit juice of Noni on lung cancer in C57 Bl/6 mice. The Noni-ppt was shown to significantly prolong the life of mice up to 75% with implanted Lewis lung carcinoma compared with the control group. Treatment with the immunosuppressive agent, 2-chloroadenosine (Cl-Ade) or cyclosporin (cys-A) diminished its activity, thereby substantiating an immunomodulatory mechanism. Noni-ppt was also capable of stimulating the release of several mediators from murine effector cells, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-lbeta (IL-lbeta), IL-10, IL-12 p70, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and nitric oxide (NO) which are important mediators of immune response. Thus, it was later concluded that the Noni juice seems to suppress tumor growth indirectly by stimulating the immune system.
A study by Furusawa E. and co-workers demonstrated that an immunomodulatory polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia possesses therapeutic potentials against the immunomodulator sensitive Sarcoma 180 tumour system. The antitumour activity of Noni-ppt produced a cure rate of 25%-45% in allogeneic mice and its activity was completely abolished by the concomitant administration of specific inhibitors of macrophages (2-chloroadenosine), T cells (cyclosporine) or natural killer (NK) cells (anti-asialo GM1 antibody).
Angiogenesis is a word that comes from combining the two Greek words “angio”, meaning blood vessel, and “genesis”, meaning beginning. Angiogenesis is the creation of tiny new blood vessels. Normally, angiogenesis is a healthy process. New blood vessels develop, for instance, to help your body heal cuts and other wounds. But during cancer, the same process creates new, very small blood vessels that provide a tumor with its own blood supply.
Noni has been shown to exhibit antiangiogenesis in cancers i.e., to stop tumors from developing new blood vessels. Without a blood supply, tumors can’t grow.
A study by Hornick CA. et al, at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center showed the effects of Noni juice in a three-dimensional fibrin clot matrix model using human placental vein and human breast tumor explants as sources for angiogenic vessel development. Noni in concentrations of 5% (vol/vol) or greater was highly effective in inhibiting the initiation of new vessel sprouts from placental vein explants. These concentrations of Noni were also effective in reducing the growth rate and proliferation of newly developing capillary sprouts. When used at a concentration of 10% in growth media, Noni was able to induce vessel degeneration and apoptosis in wells with established capillary networks within a few days of its application. They also found that 10% Noni juice in media was an effective inhibitor of capillary initiation in explants from human breast tumors. In tumor explants which did show capillary sprouting, the vessels rapidly degenerated (2-3 days) in those exposed to media supplemented with 10% Noni.
Clinical trials are people-based studies, as opposed to animal or lab studies of new drugs or procedures. Doctors use clinical trials to learn whether a new treatment is safe and effective in patients. Such trials are vital to the development of new treatments for diseases such as cancer.
Dr. Neil Solomon reviewed the results of Noni on 847 people with cancer. Sixty seven percent of these people with cancer experienced significant lessening of their symptoms.
A study done by Wong DK and co-workers in the State of Hawaii, examined two cancer patients’ claims of benefit from their use of the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia. Through interview, review of the medical records and pathology slides examination the author concludes that these cases are valuable experiences which indicate that Noni can be used as an important part of adjuvant immunotherapy for cancer.
- Cancer prevention by Noni
Noni prevents cancer by disrupting carcinogenesis, the process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. Initiation and promotion are two stages in carcinogenesis. During initiation stage the genetic code of a healthy cell is altered irreversibly and heritably by chemical, physical, or biological carcinogens. This is followed by the promotion stage in which the cancer cell is encouraged to multiply.
Extensive studies by Wang MY and co-workers have shown that Noni fruit juice possesses cancer preventive effect at the initiation stage of chemical carcinogenesis. They have also revealed the mechanism by which Noni prevents cancer. The results of these studies have been discussed below.
3.1. Cancer preventive effect of Noni at the initiation stage of mammary breast carcinogenesis
The cancer preventive effect of Noni at the initiation stage of mammary breast carcinogenesis induced by DMBA (7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene), was examined in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The focus was on the pathogenic changes after DMBA administration. The experiment consisted of an age-matched control group (no tumor induction), a DMBA group (tumor induction but no Noni) and a 5% Noni group (tumor induction and Noni).
No benign tumors or carcinomas were found in the Noni group, which showed normal histology or mild hyperplasia while the DMBA treated group showed a variety of lesions, including epithelial hyperplasias, benign tumors and in situ carcinomas. These results indicate that Noni fruit juice may prevent mammary breast cancer at the initiation stage of chemical carcinogenesis.
3.2. Studies which elucidate the mechanisms of the cancer preventive effect of Noni
Studies have shown that Noni prevents cancer by the inhibiting of the formation of DNA adducts and by its antioxidant properties.
3.2.1. Prevention of DNA adducts formation
Most chemical carcinogens need activation by our body enzymes to be transformed to an ultimate form that readily binds to genetic DNA to form DNA adducts. Carcinogen-DNA adducts formation causes DNA damage. Carcinogen DNA adducts can be repaired by body enzymes. The un-repaired DNA damage will be responsible for mutation and the consequent cancer development. Therefore preventing carcinogen-DNA adduct formation is a key step for cancer prevention at the initiation step of carcinogenesis- a multiple stage process. Thus, if Noni can prevent and or block the formation of carcinogen induced DNA adducts, it may prevent cancer at the initiation stage of carcinogenesis.
Carcinogen DMBA induced DNA adduct formation was used as a marker to examine whether Noni is able to prevent carcinogen induced DNA damage.
The prevention of DMBA DNA adduct formation by Noni fruit juice induced by DMBA was examined in the following animal models
• Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.
• Male C57 BL-6 mice.
In these animal models after one week of consumption of Noni fruit juice, DNA was isolated from liver, lung, heart and kidney. The following results were observed:
•In the female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, the quantitative estimate after radioactive counting indicated that Noni fruit juice reduced the amount of DNA adduct formation by 80% in kidney, 42% in liver, 41% in lung and 26% in heart[13l
•Even more dramatic experimental results were obtained using male C57 BL-6 mice. Noni fruit juice was able to reduce the formation of DMBA- DNA adducts by 90% kidney, 70% liver, 60% in heart and 50% in lung.
This data indicates that Noni fruit juice may prevent cancer at the initiation stage of carcinogenesis.
3.2.2. Antioxidant activity of Noni
Oxidative damage induced by reactive free radicals is involved in the development of cancer. Antioxidants are known to reduce free radical induced oxidative damage, therefore reducing cancer risk.
It was hypothesized that the antioxidants in Noni may have cancer protective effect by scavenging reactive oxygen free radicals and quenching lipid peroxides. The following studies were done to examine the hypothesis.
•In vitro study
•an acute liver injury model induced by carbon tetrachloride
•In current smokers
The studies were designed to measure how well Noni scavenged superoxide anion radicals (SAR) and quenched lipid peroxides (LPO).
In vitro study:
Noni fruit juice showed a dose dependent inhibition of both LPO and SAR. The SAR scavenging activity of Noni juice was compared to that of three known antioxidants: vitamin – C, grape seed powder, and Pycnogenol at a daily dose per serving level recommended by US RDA’s or manufacturer’s recommendations. Under the experimental conditions, the SAR scavenging activity of Noni fruit juice was shown to be 2.8 times that of vitamin – C,
1.4 times that of Pycnogenol, and 1.1 times that of grape seed powder. Therefore Noni fruit juice has a great potential to scavenge reactive oxygen free radicals.
In an acute liver injury model induced by carbon tetrachloride:
To confirm the antioxidant activity of Noni fruit juice in in vivo, a carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury model in female SD rats was selected. Carbon tetrachloride is a liver carcinogen and lipid hydroperoxidation inducer.
Ten percent of Noni fruit juice in drinking.water for 12 d was able to reduce the liver LPO and SAR levels to 20% and 50% of that observed in the placebo group 3h after CC14 administration. In conclusion, Noni fruit juice may protect liver from an extrinsic carcinogenic CC14 exposure .
Causal relationship between cigarette smoking and cancer in men and women has been documented. It was estimated that some l*1017oxidant molecules are present in each puff of cigarette smoke. Free radicals are known to cause oxidative damage and consequent lipid peroxidation, which are involved in the pathogenesis of human diseases.
Consequently, it was hypothesized that antioxidants in Noni fruit juice may protect individuals from cigarette smoke by scavenging oxygen free radicals and quenching lipid peroxides.
In order to examine this hypothesis, a one month double blinded, randomized and placebo controlled clinical trial was designed to test the protective effect of Noni fruit juice on plasma SAR and LPO in current smokers. The subjects were supplemented daily with two ounces of Noni fruit juice (n=38) or placebo (n=30), twice a day for 30days. The plasma SAR and LPO levels were determined before and after trial. The LPO and SAR levels in the Noni group showed 23% reduction and 27% reduction, respectively compared to placebo group . These results indicate that Noni fruit juice may protect individuals from oxidative damage induced by tobacco smoke.
The data from the in vitro study, CC14- induced liver injury model of female SD rats and current smokers indicate that Noni is a strong antioxidant which can scavenge reactive oxygen free radicals and quench lipid hydroperoxides, therefore reducing the cancer risk.
The studies examined in this review indicate that Noni is potentially useful in the treatment and prevention of cancer.
Most of the experiments thus far carried out have been pre-clinical (animal or in vitro studies). Therefore there is a need for rigorous randomized clinical trials. Recognizing this need, the National Institutes of Health recently provided support for a phase 1 clinical study of the effects of Noni fruit extract in cancer patients. The study aims to collect information on the efficacy of Noni with respect to antitumor properties and to select specific patients for subsequent phase 2 studies. The study started in November 2001 and the research is ongoing. The results of this clinical study will lend more credence to the results obtained so far regarding the therapeutic and preventive effects of Noni.
Noni and Cancer
Good health begins with good nutrition, regular exercise and a positive attitude about life, constructed upon a strong spiritual base. However, since so many modern foods we ingest are so depleted of vitamins and nutrients, we have taken a closer look at nutritional food supplements that can boost both proactive and reactive health measures, especially when it comes to diseases such as cancer.
Noni – Natural Nutritional Food Supplement is derived from the fruit of the tree Morinda citrifolia. Morinda citrifolia, comes from the plant family Rubiaceae. The ripened fruit has a white, almost translucent, bumpy skin, and gives off a pungent odor. Early studies of the plant document that its traditional applications range from using the fruit as a fever-reducing agent to helping control diabetes. The fruit was frequently employed by natives to control pain, from which practice come the names “Pain Fruit” or “Headache Fruit.”
We have found at least six ingredients within Noni that have been shown in scientific studies to be anti-carcinogenic. We have also found there are six different compounds within the body that play an important role in activating the immune system against cancer. These compounds are believed to be modulated, or in other words regulated, by Noni.
In this paper, we will cover these twelve substances in detail and discuss what they do to enhance resistance against the proliferation of some cancer cells. Before doing that, however, allow us to explain what cancer actually is, what it does in the body, and the modern methods used to treat it.
WHAT IS CANCER?
Cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells grow uncontrollably and invade and destroy body tissues. Cancer can occur in almost any organ or tissue in the body. It is the leading cause of death. There are ways to fight back, but to understand them we need to know how cancer cells develop.
As cells wear out they replicate themselves. When cells divide they pass on their genetic information. This genetic code, the DNA, determines what the cell will be and what it will do. One portion of the DNA contains the encoding for a process called “apoptosis.” Apoptosis is the time limit of a cell. It contains the information for self-destruction of the cell after it has served its useful purpose. Normal cell growth includes the death of old cells (apoptosis) and the controlled reproduction of new cells. Cancerous cell growth does not include that process.
HOW DOES CANCER KILL?
There are two phases to cancer. The first phase involves damage to DNA, which can be caused by any number of factors, including carcinogens. The most widely known carcinogens are chemicals. While many carcinogenic chemicals are accidentally introduced to the body, some such as tobacco are self-induced. Other carcinogens include radiation. Of course, genetics is a very powerful determinant of cancer. Some viruses have also been linked to certain cancers. When introduced to the body, carcinogens attack the DNA of the exposed cells. The damage can result in cancer. Not everyone who is exposed to carcinogens contracts cancer; however, the greater the exposure the greater the risk.
The second phase of cancer involves uncontrolled growth. Damaged DNA alone does not cause cancer because our cells actually have a mechanism in place that counteracts damaged
DNA. When a cell detects damaged or defective DNA it will cut out the bad part and replace it with the correct sequence. If everything goes well, the cell is repaired and normal function can be resumed. However, if the damaged DNA sequence is not cut out, or is improperly repaired, the cell can turn cancerous. When a cell becomes cancerous, it passes on damaged DNA. The cycle continues until a tumor develops. Eventually, a tumor may start to spread in a process called metastasis. Metastasis is when cancerous cells move from one part of the body to another. Originally it was thought that metastasis was random. However, current research has shown that certain cancers tend to metastasize to certain body parts. Breast cancer, for instance, often will metastasize to the skeletal system.
Once the cancer has metastasized, the cancer is usually considered very serious. However, there is still hope. For example, in the November 14, 2002 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, Dr. Khandan Keuomarsi reported preliminary findings that a growth protein, Cyclin E, is the most powerful predictor of cancer survival rate. Cyclin E prediction was reported six times more powerful a predictor than current methods, and could have possible future use to determine who needs the cancer cut out, or who needs it cut out and also have chemotherapy.i
A great deal of emphasis is being placed on the second phase of uncontrolled growth. Doctors and researchers have observed that if the fueling forces to a cancer are removed, the growth is stopped, or significantly slowed down, and the cancer goes into, remission. Additionally, if the cells can be induced into apoptosis, then the cancer will be stopped or significantly slowed down again.
25 Common Cancers
3.Brain / Central Nervous System (CNS) Cancers
5.Colon and Rectum Cancer
13.Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer
19.Sarcoma-Soft Tissue Cancer
HOW TO KILL CANCER
While there is no universal cure for cancer, there are four common treatments used with measured success. The main four types of treatment are surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and biological therapies. There are also some advances being made in experimental molecular biology. Let’s briefly review these methods of treatment.
Surgery requires locating and then removing the entire cancerous growth. Another surgical technique is the removal of the gland that the cancer is dependent upon. By removing the hormone that the cancer responds to, cancer can be stopped or retarded in its growth and progress. Removing the testes or ovaries, for example, can be an effective part of treating prostate or breast cancer.
Radiation therapy involves killing cancerous cells by bombarding them with X-rays or gamma rays. This stops their growth. The tumor can then be removed surgically, if possible. Radiation therapy can also be achieved by internalizing the radioactive substance. For instance, radioactive iodine can treat thyroid cancer.
Chemotherapy is the treatment most often implemented. By introducing powerful medicines into the body, the cancerous cells can be killed. Chemotherapy actually originated with chemical warfare studies conducted during World War II. Researchers noticed that mustard gases inhibited cell growth. By applying the gas to cancerous cells, their growth was stopped or significantly slowed down. Unfortunately, chemotherapy medicines do not differentiate between healthy and sick cells. The medicines will attack any cells to which they are introduced.
Biological therapies involve boosting the body’s natural defenses. Cells have natural defenses against cancer, and the body’s immune system will also attack cancerous growths. By introducing chemicals or plant extracts into the body that boost these responses, some cancers can be successfully treated. The introduction of interferon and interleukin-2, both naturally occurring chemicals in your body, are two such treatments in use. It is believed Noni juice modulates the production of both of these natural chemicals.
Some of the most successful treatments by doctors are those that include a combination of these four treatments. Since cancer can be such a pervasive intruder, many medical professionals feel it is best to attack it from several different angles.
AN ALTERNATIVE CHOICE
As research continues, new substances are being discovered that help fight cancer. Plant extracts are growing in popularity. Extracts from the red periwinkle used for leukemias and lymphomas and etoposide, from the American Mayapple, as well as Morinda citrifolia (noni) are just some examples of current plant-based biological therapies. In 2001, at the 92nd Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research, Noni was listed as one of the top ten alternative cancer treatments used in conventional settings.
Research shows that more and more people are using alternative therapy in addition to, or in place of, conventional cancer treatments. According to cancer researcher Ralph W Moss, Ph.D, surveys from the American Cancer Society done in 1989 found that 9 percent of cancer patients were using one or more alternative treatments. Surveys done only ten years later, in 1998, showed that 31 percent of American cancer patients used alternative therapy.
ii. This means in these ten years the use of alternative methods increased more than three-fold.
Dr. Moss also lists five main instances when alternative treatment is usually used in the case of cancer.iiiThese are:
1) Primary prevention. People use diets and natural supplements to try and ward off the disease in the first place. Noni itself contains over 150 nutraceuticals important to the body. Some of which are known anti-cancer agents.iv
2)Secondary prevention. Cancer survivors often use diet and supplements to prevent a recurrence.
3)Reduction of side effects. During the course of conventional treatment, many patients suffer negative side effects. Some natural products, such as Noni, can be used to reduce those side effects.
4)Modulation of immunity. Many cancers disrupt the immune system. Some people use natural methods of trying to boost the body’s immune system in order to ward off disease and to combat the cancer itself. Researcher Dr. Anne Hirazumi has focused much of her published work on this aspect of Noni.
5)Treatment of advanced disease. Many patients turn to non – conventional methods once it appears that conventional medicine has nothing further to offer them.
We believe the most important time to use a natural supplement to fight against cancer is during the prevention stage. Meanwhile, visit your doctor on a regular basis. The sooner a cancer is detected, the greater the chance of remission. Be aware of some of the more common symptoms of cancer like changes in bowel movements, fatigue, fever, continuous coughing or hoarseness, and expulsion of blood. Avoid things that are known to be carcinogenic, such as asbestos and smoking.
Boosting the immune system and possibly warding off secondary cancers with a natural supplement also makes good sense. And lastly, the practice of incorporating Noni into an existing cancer treatment may also be a good idea, and its usefulness is supported by various cancer related studies that have been conducted in the last decade.
NONI IN THE RESEARCH LAB
Although Noni has been used by folk and traditional healers for centuries to help ward off diseases, including cancer, it wasn’t until the early 1990s that it began to be studied in the scientific laboratory. That research has continued up until today. Currently, one researcher at the University of Hawaii is doing a two-year study that involves Noni and humans. During this study, Dr. Brian Issell is monitoring the CAT scans of patients who use Noni to see if there are any significant changes in the scans.v This study, along with the others could be extended to examine the known anti-cancer substances in Noni as well as the immune system agents believed to be modulated by Noni.
Boosting the Immune System
In 1994, Anne Hirazumi, Ph.D. and others published their findings from laboratory studies in which Noni appeared to slow and even stop cancer in mice suffering from Lewis Lung carcinoma.
vi. Later, she wrote a dissertation on how the anti-tumor characteristic of Noni might work.vii
She continued her research throughout the 1990s, publishing another work on the subject in 1999 from the University of Hawaii.viiiIn this work, Hirazumi and co-researcher Furusawa published data that suggest that Noni may suppress cancerous tumor growth by activating the host’s immune system. In other words, through modulation Noni boosts the immune system of the animal suffering from cancer to the point that the immune system is able to ward off some of the mutating cells. The study showed that the cancer survival time in mice improved when Noni was added to a “sub-optimal dose” of standard chemotherapeutic agents such as Adriamycin, Cisplatin, and Vincristine. The researchers believed this data strengthened Noni’s position as a supplemental agent in cancer treatment.
Also in the early 1990s, scientists in Japan were doing independent Noni research. In 1993, a handful of scientists published an article in Cancer Letters that validated the theory that Morinda citrifolia shows cancer-fighting abilities. In this study, the scientists injected ras cells (cells that are precursors to many malignant growths) with a substance called damnacanthal, which they obtained from Noni. They observed that the injection of damnacanthal significantly inhibited the ras cells from reproducing.ix
Cancer Prevention and Adduct Markers
Mian-Ying Wang, MD, researcher from the University of Illinois Medical School published some remarkable work on the anti-cancer properties of Tahitian Noni®Juice. Before specifically studying Noni’s effect on cancer, Dr. Wang did considerable work with cytokinetics of cancerous cells and how anti-cancer drugs affected them. She has also studied chemical and hormonal carcinogenesis and cancer prevention at the initiation stage of cancer development.
During the past few years, Dr. Wang has been aggressively studying the impact Noni Juice has on cancer. Dr. Wang recently published an intriguing article that pointed to Noni’s possible preventative effect on cancer. This study showed that mice who were given a solution of 10 percent Tahitian Noni®juice for a week and then injected with DMBA (a known cancer-causing agent) had significantly lower DNA adduct markers (a test for abnormal mutant cells) than mice who were fed only water and then injected with DMBA. The noni-fed mice had 50 percent fewer DNA markers in the lungs than the water-fed mice. In addition, the noni-fed mice had 60 percent fewer markers in the heart, 70 percent fewer markers in the liver, and 90 percent fewer markers in the kidneys. (See Figures 1 and 2.) The Noni-fed mice had more protection against the cancer-causing agent than the water-fed mice did.
x.Figure 1. The density of DNA adduct markers is kidney and heart
Autoradiographic density pattern of DNA adduct markers (single nucleotide) from two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography.
These figures show that the density of the markers of the group of rats who took Noni as seen on the tight side (B and D) is significantly lower than the density of the markers of the group on the left (A and C) who did not drink Noni. The lower the density, the more the prevention and protection against cancer.
Figure 2. Density of DNA adduct markers in liver and lung
Autoradiographic density pattern of DNA adduct markers (single nucleotide) from two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography.
These figures show that density of that the density of the markers of the group of rats who took Noni as seen on the right side (B and D) is significantly lower than the density of the markers of the group on the left (A and C) who did not drink Noni. The lower the density, the more the prevention and protection against cancer.
Dr. Wang continued with this research, and in 2001 she published her study results in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
xi. A summary of another study with rats completed by Dr. Wang and her associates is shown in Table 1. This study addressed the hypothesis that Tahitian Noni®Juice possesses a cancer preventative effect at the initiation stage of carcinogenesis. Preliminary data suggests that pretreatment for one week with Tahitian Noni®Juice in drinking water at a concentration of 10% was able to reduce DMBA-DNA adduct formation (marker for developing cancer) in rats.
Table 1. Pretreatment with rats drinking 10% Tahitian Noni®juice
Dr. Wang’s studies in rats suggest that Tahitian Noni®Juice may prevent cancer at its initiation stage by blocking or decreasing carcinogen-induced DNA adduct formation. In addition, she believes Tahitian Noni®Juice has other cancer-preventing qualities as well. She has shown in vitro (test tube) and in vivo (body) that Tahitian Noni® Juice reduces cancer growth through its scavenging reactive oxidative species (ROS), its quenching lipid peroxides (LPO), and its anti-inflammatory effect.
Dr. Wang has also completed a small, one-year pilot study of a double-blind human clinical trial on how Tahitian Noni®Juice may decrease the DNA damage caused by smoking cigarettes in current smokers. This damage is a pre-cursor to some of the cancers that smokers are known to develop with greater frequency than nonsmokers. Results from the pilot study were positive, and now Dr. Wang is continuing this line of research with an even larger number of participants.xii
COX 2 Enzyme
There is an interesting link between the COX 2 enzyme, cancer, and Noni. In the 1950s, Dr. John R. Vane discovered that the COX enzyme converted body acids into prostaglandins that can cause inflammation around joints.xiiiThis discovery led to extensive research on the COX enzyme and its relationship to arthritis. It also led to a later discovery (in 1991) by Dr. Daniel
L. Simmons, Professor of Chemistry at Brigham Young University, in Provo, Utah. He discovered there are really two COX enzymes, COX I and COX 2. The gene for the COX 2 enzyme is found on chromosome 1. It is only the COX 2 enzyme that aggravates inflammation. Interestingly enough, the COX 2 enzyme also plays a role in cancer formation.xiv
Scientists found increased amounts of COX 2 enzyme in an ever-increasing list of malignant tumors. For example, COX 2
frequently shows up in a common form of stomach cancer. In addition, cancerous tumors in the colon, pancreas, breast, lung, liver and prostate all have increased amounts of COX 2.xv
In the July 2001 issue of Clinical Cancer Research, Finnish scientists reported that they examined tumors from 43 patients with a type of stomach cancer that resembles colon cancer. Of these 43 patients, 25 showed evidence of the increased COX 2 enzyme. Some researchers believe that a new critical avenue to study may be how to combat cancer using COX 2 inhibition.xvi
Now let’s review Noni’s role in all of this. Tahitian Noni®Juice has been found to be very effective at inhibiting or stopping the body’s production of the “bad” COX 2 enzyme. Dr. Chen Shu, Jarakae Jensen, and others at the Tahitian Noni International research laboratory in Provo, Utah, compared the COX 2 inhibition ratio of Tahitian Noni®Juice to the COX 2 inhibition ratio of prescription medications.
They found that Tahitian Noni®Juice compared “very favorably” to the prescription medications. Next, researchers compared the COX2 inhibition ratio to the COX 2 inhibition ratio of over-the-counter NSAIDs (anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen). In this category, Tahitian Noni®far out-performed the over-the-counter medications.xvii
These studies suggest that Tahitian Noni®Juice is multi-faceted in its approach to fighting cancer. Noni, when used in rat experiments, seems to help with the prevention aspect, with tumor shrinkage, and with boosting the immune system in order to help the body heal itself. It seems to reinforce the notion of fighting cancer on several levels, both traditional and non-traditional, in both animals and humans.
In the next section, we review six ingredients found in Noni that have anticancer properties. We also cover six immune-system components that are believed to be modulated by Noni. The section, while somewhat scientific in nature, will help strengthen the reasons for including the natural food supplement Noni in your regular diet.
6 KNOWN ANTI-CANCER AGENTS IN NONI
There are over 150 known nutraceuticals in Noni Juice. Of these, at least six have been shown in scientific studies to fight cancer. The six substances are : 1) Polysaccharides, 2) Anthraquinones,
3) Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), 4) Monoterpenes, and 5) Terpenoid compounds, and 6) Proxeronine.
Let’s start with some definitions. Monosaccharides are simple sugars (glucose). A disaccharide consists of two linked monosaccharides (table sugar or sucrose). Polysaccharides are chains of monosaccharides or disaccharides (glycogen). Polysaccharides are found abundantly in Noni. There has been an enormous amount of research done on the anti-cancer effects of polysaccharides.
When it comes to fighting cancer, polysaccharides block the adhesion of mutated cells to other cells, such as in metastasis. How well they block adhesion depends on the density of the polysaccharides’ sulphate groups, their molecular weight, and their carbohydrate structure. Sulphated polysaccharides destabilize the interaction between glucosaminoglycan and certain proteins. This helps block the mutated cell’s ability to adhere to new cells, stopping, metastasis.xviii
In one study done at the Medical Research Institute in Tokyo,
Japan, researchers injected rats with colonic carcinogens. Four weeks after the cancerous injection, researchers began injecting the mice three times a week for eight weeks with polysaccharides. They found that the polysaccharide-treated rats had 44 percent fewer colonic tumors than the control rats and their survival rate increased 150 percent.xix
The known biological activity of the anthraquinones found in Noni includes fighting inflammation, bacteria, parasites, and tumors. Anthraquinones are also used to boost the body’s immune system. Damnacanthal, an anthraquinone found in Noni, inhibits the formation of tumors by interfering with the growth of ras cells. It is believed that other anthraquinones, such as alizarin that is also in Noni, cut off the blood supply to tumors, depriving them of their nutrients. This can slow the growth of tumors.
The anti-cancer effects of anthraquinones, including alizarin and damnacanthal, have been extensively studied. Most researchers agree that anthraquinones have unique features that make them a strong adversary to cancer growths. Let’s review just a few of these studies.
In one 1998 study, researchers found that quinones significantly inhibited or stopped the growth of malignant cells from human colon carcinoma. Alizarin was used in this experiment as well as other quinines.
xx. Another study tested quinones for in vitro anti-tumor effects and in vivo effects of mouse skin carcinogenesis. Results from the test showed that indeed these compounds have “potent” anti-tumor promoting activity.
xxi. In an even earlier study in 1996, Polish scientists studied anthraquinones effect on cytochrome c (a cancer-causing agent within the body). They concluded that the quinones reduced cytochrome c without causing the formation of any new free radicals.xxii
3) Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg)
EGCg is a polyphenolic flavonoid antioxidant that is found in abundance in Noni, blueberry and grape (all of which are found in Tahitian Noni®Juice). During a meeting of the American Society of Cell Biology held in San Francisco, two Drs. Moore (a husband and wife research team) from Purdue University reported that EGCg was extremely successful at killing tumor cells. In the meeting, Dr. Dorothy Moore said that in cancer cells, the enzyme NOX is active all the time. In a normal cell, NOX is only active when the cell is dividing in response to growth-hormone signals.
The Moore’s findings suggest EGCg interferes with NOX (the tumor-associated activity of NOX) but not with normal NOX. They also reported that EGCg limits the activity of breast cancer tumor cells grown in the laboratory, but that it does not affect normal healthy breast cells. They concluded that, “In the presence of EGCg, the cancer cells literally failed to grow or enlarge after division, then presumably because they did not reach the minimum size needed to divide, they underwent programmed cell death, or apoptosis.”xxiii
The noni fruit contains significant amounts of Monoterpenes. Monoterpenes have been studied extensively in the laboratory and have been shown to have several cancer-fighting actions. In general, monoterpenes prevent the carcinogenic process at both the beginning stage, and at the progression stage. In addition, monoterpenes are effective in treating early and advanced cancers. One of the most exciting facts about monoterpenes is that when used with humans (even in large quantities) they exhibit no toxic effects on the body.
In a laboratory setting, researchers have found that monoterpenes inhibit the isoprenylation of small G proteins. This could, theoretically, help the body resist cancer by stopping proliferation and inducing of apoptosis.
xxiv. Other studies indicate that monoterpenes act in multiple ways in cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy.
xxv. One of the most common monoterpenes scientists have examined is limonene (found in lemons and in noni juice). The monoterpene limonene has been shown to prevent mammary, liver, lung, and other cancers. It has been used to treat a variety of rodent cancers, including breast and pancreatic carcinomas. In addition, in vitro data suggest it may be effective in treating, some forms of leukemia.
xxvi. One particular study showed that limonene was a major factor in specifically resisting breast cancer.
Some researchers declared limonene and limonene-related monoterpenes to be considered as “a new class of therapeutic agents for treating breast cancer.”
5) Terpenoid compounds
Related to monoterpenes, terpenoid compounds, or terpenes, are also found in Noni. The specific terpenes in Noni are eugenol, beta-carotene, and ursolic acid.
Eugenol is an active germicide as well as a smooth-muscle relaxer. It has also been involved with various studies on breast cancer. In one study, eugenol was tested using pigskin. Researchers found eugenol significantly increased the permeability of the breast cancer drug tamoxifen.xxviii modulate is interferon-y. Interferon-y was originally thought to be anti-viral. More and more, it also shows up in the body during the immune system’s fight against cancer. It is believed that it helps in the activation of macrophages and the overall process of cell-mediated immunity.
Dr. Hirazumi’s research also makes mention of interferons in connection to Noni and its immune-boosting properties. xxxiii
Beta-carotene, another terpene in Noni, is associated with reducing cancers of the lung, skin, cervix, prostate, and respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Beta-carotene is believed to function by boosting the thymus gland. The thymus gland helps distribute T cells that destroy invading cancers. One study, conducted by the National Cancer Institute in Finland, found that long-term use of a moderate dose of beta-carotene substantially reduced prostate cancer incidence and deaths from it in male smokers. Results of this study showed that 50 to 69 year old men who took beta-carotene daily for five to eight years had 32 percent fewer diagnoses of prostate cancer and 41 percent fewer prostate cancer deaths compared to men who did not receive the supplement. Nearly 30,000 men were used in the study.
xxix. Beta-carotene should be used in moderate amounts.
Ursolic acid is also found in Noni. It has positive effects on treating cancer both externally and internally. It has been found to be effective as both an anti-inflammatory and as an anti-tumor agent. In a study using mouse skin, ursolic acid exhibited remarkable inhibitory activity against skin tumors. In fact, comparable to the known tumor inhibitor, retinoic acid, ursolic acid was more effective after a single application.
From this result, researchers believe ursolic acid stops tumors in a different way than retinoic acid. They suggest that pretreatment of the skin with ursolic acid may inhibit the first dramatic cellular event in tumor creation.xxx
Dr. Ralph Heinicke, Ph.D., an expert on Pineapple and Noni, crystalized an ingredient in Noni that he subsequently named, “proxeronine.” Dr. Heinicke believes that proxeronine, when converted in the body into a critical alkaloid he named xeronine, can be a great defense against cancer by boosting cellular health.
According to Dr. Heinicke, proxeronine is the critical element of the xeronine system a system in the body that he believes consists of proxeronine, proxeroninase, and xeronine.
In his book, The Xeronine System, Dr. Heinicke theorizes that proxeronine, when combined with the enzyme proxeroninase, forms xeronine. Xeronine is delivered to cells that are sick or somehow compromised. As such, he maintains that xeronine positively affects nearly every function of the body.
xxxi. Dr. Heinicke’s xeronine theory, based on research conducted for more than forty years, postulates that proxeronine travels to specific parts of cells, such as the mitochondria, microsomes, Golgi apparatus, reticuloendothelium, electron transport system, DNA, RNA, and so forth. Within these structures, proxeronine combines with other natural biochemicals and building blocks
(i.e. hormones, proteins, enzymes, serotonin, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants). The Golgi apparatus and the reticuloendothelium then assemble all the necessary compounds into a specific “package” and deliver the “package” to the sick parts of the cell, or they may carry the “package” via the blood stream to other sick cells. As the receiving sick cell opens the “package” sent by the Golgi apparatus and the reticuloendothelium, the packaged proxeronine combines with another cellular enzyme called proxeroninase. This combination converts into xeronine, which is then used by the body to help rebuild the damaged cells. Since both cancer and xeronine work on the cellular level-one tries to destroy the cell while the other tries to restore health they are natural adversaries.
BOOSTING ANTI-CANCER DEFENSES IN THE BODY
Research has shown that in addition to containing cancer-fighting agents, Noni may also have the ability to modulate the production, activity, and effectiveness of some immune system agents, most of which are directly responsible for warding off diseases such as cancer. Some of these immune system agents are nitric oxide, interleukins, interferon, tumor necrosis factor, lipopolysaccharide, and natural killer cells.
1) Nitric Oxide
Dr. Anne Hirazumi’s work with Morinda citrifolia shows that Noni extract is able to promote the body’s biosynthesis of nitric oxide. The benefits of nitric oxide are being loudly touted in the medical world today. One of nitric oxide’s abilities is to ward off cancer attacks on the cells. In her published work, Dr. Hirazumi states, “Nitric oxide produced by activated macrophages plays a role in the host protection against pathogens as well as tumors.” She also states that nitric oxide can kill pathogens by destroying the DNA synthesis of such cells and by poisoning them.”xxxii
Another immune system agent that Noni may modulate is interleukins. Interleukins are hormones that carry messages from one immune cell to anther, informing the receiving cell to speed up its multiplication when in danger of invading pathogens. There are several different types of interleukins, and they are usually classified by numbers, such as interleukin-2. Interleukin-2 is closely tied to the body’s anti-cancer mechanisms. Interleukins also enhance the production of B-cell antibodies, and promote the cytotoxicity of Natural killer (NK) cells. They also can play a role in activating T-lymphocytes.
Interferons are another component of the body’s immune system. As with interleukins, there are several types of interferons. The type of interferon that Noni is believed to modulate is interferon-y. Interferon-y was originally thought to be anti-viral. More and more, it also shows up in the body during the immune system’s fight against cancer. It is believed that it helps in the activation of macrophages and the overall process of cell-mediated immunity.
4) Tumor Necrosis Factor
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a substance secreted by various macrophages (which may be modulated by Noni) to kill tumors. It is believed the tumor necrosis factor plays a principal role in the immune system’s fight against cancer.
5) Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
Certain bacteria have an outer layer that is composed mainly of lipopolysaccharide. Consequently, the presence of LPS in the blood stream usually means a bacterial infection. The immune system reacts to the presence of LPS and tries to eliminate the assumed invading, organism. If LPS is able to get into the bloodstream in ways other than through bacteria, (such as by ingesting noni which may modulate LPS production) the body may increase its immune system activity.
6) Natural killer Cells (NK)
Noni is believed to modulate another vital component of the body’s immune system-natural killer cells. These cells are considered deadly to many invaders. The NK cells can recognize and destroy virally infected cells, as well as some tumor cells.
Within our bodies, there are many mechanisms at work trying to safeguard our health. Why not boost these mechanisms with a natural food supplement that has been shown to contain important ingredients for promoting healthy cell function?
Cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia
Morinda citrifolia has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It has been reported to have broad therapeutic effects, including anticancer activity, in both clinical practice and laboratory animal models, The mechanism for these effects remains unknown. The hypothesis that Morinda citrifolia possesses a cancer-preventive effect at the initiation stage of carcinogenesis was studied. Our preliminary data indicated that 10% Tahitian Noni Liquid Dietary Supplement made from Morinda citrifolia fruit. In drinking water for one week as able to prevent DMBA-DNA adduct formation. The levels of DMBA – DNA adducts were reduced by 30% in the heart, 41% in the lung, 42% in the liver and 80% in the kidney of female SD rats. Even more dramatic results were obtained in male C57 BL-6 mice : 10% Morinda citrifolia was able to reduce DMBA-DNA adduct formation by 60% in the heart, 50% in the lung, 70% in the liver and 90% in the kidney. In order to explore the mechanism of this preventive effect, the antioxidant activity of Morinda citrifolia was examined in vitro by lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) and tetrazolium nitro blue (TXB) assays. In the LPO assay. LPO oxidizes leucomethylene blue to methylene blue in the presence of haemoglobin. The resultant blue colour was quantified at 660nm spectrophotometrically. In the TXB assay, superoxide anion radicals (SAR) reduce TNB into formazan blue that was also measured by absorption at 602nm. Morinda citrifolia showed a dose-dependent inhibition of both IPO and SAR in our system. The antioxidant activity of Morinda citrifolia was compared to the effects of vitamin C, grape seed powder (GSP) and pycnogenol (PYC) at the daily dose per serving level recommended by U.S.RDAs or manufacturers. The results suggest that prevention to carcinogen – DNA adduct formation and the antioxidant activity Morinda citrifolia may contribute to the cancer-preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia.
Noni Scientific studies and Cancer
As a researcher in Hawaii, Dr. Ralph Heinicke became aware of the marvelous benefits of the Morinda citrifolia fruit and set out to find the pharmacologically active ingredient of the Noni. Dr. Heinicke had spent over 45 years studying the effects of an alkaloid he discovered and named xeronine. Xeronine is a relatively small alkaloid, which is physiologically very active and important for the proper functioning of all cells in the body. In his research, Dr. Heinicke discovered that the Noni juice contains appreciable amounts of the precursor of xeronine that he named “Proxeronine”. “Proxeronine” releases pure xeronine in the intestines when it comes in contact with a particular enzyme also found in the Noni Juice.
Dr. Heinicke’s theory is that, when released, xeronine actually works at the molecular level to repair damaged cells. Dr. Heinicke states that the primary function of xeronine is to regulate the rigidity and shape of specific proteins. Since these proteins have different functions within the cells, this explains how the administration of Noni Juice causes an unbelievably wide range of physiological responses. “Some of the problems, which drinking Noni Juice might favourably affect : high blood pressure, menstrual cramps, arthritis, gastric, ulcers, sprains, injuries, mental depression, senility, poor digestion, atherosclerosis, blood vessel problems, drug addiction, relief of pain and many others. Although, this list looks like a page torn out of a travelling medicine man’s manual, it is probably conservative.” – Dr. Heinicke.
When Dr. Ralph M. Heinicke received his doctorate in biochemistry from the University of Minnesota, he wanted to escape from those cold Minnesota winters, and so he took a job with Dole Pineapple Company in Hawaii. His first assignment was to develop a method to extract the enzyme that caused pineapple to prevent gelatin deserts from setting up. He found, it was an enzyme called bromelain and in due time he and his co-workers found way to extract it. Soon the Dole Company found that everyday they had over a thousand pounds of this crude bromelain enzyme extract left over as a waste product. At the time, it had no commercial value, and so the company president asked Dr. Heinicke to sec if he could find some use for this material. Eventually, he found it was a proteolytic enzyme that had some medical applications. He worked with SmithKline and the Rohr pharmaceutical companies to expand its medical use.
In order to get FDA approval for this enzyme, he had to refine the crude bromelain extract down to an extremely pure protease enzyme. Much to his and the drug companies amazement, the more pure the enzyme became the less beneficial, it was in many of its applications. Eventually, in its purest state, it had only 5% of its original potency for many of its uses. Dr. Heinicke was then asked to find what it was they were removing that had given the crude bromelain extract all of its power. Meanwhile, the giant Japanese drug company Toshiba had also launched a 3 year, 3 million dollar program to find the same answer. At the end of that time they had used tip all their money and not found the answer. Not one to give up easily, Dr. Heinicke continued his research and eventually found to his great surprise that the active ingredient was not a protein, carbohydrate or fat, but a substance known as an alkaloid.
Alkaloids are one of the most important classes of phytochemicals known, and are major source from which many modern medicines are drawn from Nature. By isolating this alkaloid into a pure state, he was able to identify is exact chemical structure. Because, it could be reduced to a dry crystalline structure he decided to use the latin prefix “Xero” meaning “dry” as the first part of its name. Since, it was also an alkaline compound he tacked on the suffix “ine” indicating its alkaline nature. When the prefix and suffix are combined it gives us the word “Xeronine” which means “a dry alkaline compound”, which is the descriptive name he chose for the compound he discovered.
Eventually, he found that Xeronine was a very important biochemical in the human body and essential for good health. So essential that the human body has a limited ability to manufacture it from the raw material found in certain fruits. Like many other biochemicals produced in the body, he found that positive thoughts and emotions, along with exposure to art, music, nature and spiritual experiences increased its production. While negative thoughts, emotions and stressful experiences suppressed it’s production. He also learned that as the body’s level of Xeronine declined with age, stress and poor diet, the level of health and recovery declined right along with it.
Proving the essential nature of xeronine
Being a scientist, Dr. Heinicke knew that he would have to find a way to prove the essential nature of this amazing alkaloid before he or anyone else could really believe this was essential to good health. During the course of his research through the scientific literature for compounds similar to Xeronine, he located one that had a chemical structure that was extremely close.
This chemical cousin is called Tctrodotoxin and is the most potent neurotoxic poison known to man. It is a potent alkaloid found in the Puffer Fish. When Dr. Heinicke discovered this fact, he realized that here was a way to determine for sure, whether the Xeronine he had isolated from the pineapple was essential to human health or not. You see, the only reason the body takes up certain toxic chemical substances is because they chemically mimic on the body must normally have. For example, morphine is addictive to the brain only, because it chemically mimics natural chemicals of the brain called endorphins and are taken up by the same receptors in the brain. Realizing this Dr. Heinicke reasoned that Tetrodotoxin must mimic Xeronine. If this were true. Dr. Heinicke realized that the presence of Xeronine in the tissues would block the uptake of the poisonous Tetrodotoxin and prevent its lethal effect.
An important groundbreaking experiment
In a groundbreaking experiment, Dr. Heinicke proved the Tetrodotoxin is accepted by the body only when Xeronine was missing. He did this by taking 30 laboratory mice and dividing them into 3 groups of 10 each. He gave an injection of the Tetrodotoxin to one group and they all immediately died, Next he gave an injection of an equivalent amount of Xeronine to the second group and of course they all lived. Finally, he mixed together the amounts of Tetrodotoxin and Xeronine he had used with the other 2 groups of mice and injected the third group of mice. Not only did all 10 of these mice live, but unlike mice would normally do who have received an intestinal injection, they did not curl up in the wood shavings to recover when placed back in their cages. Instead these mice were alert, energetic, curious and active. Yet these mice had just received a lethal dose of the most powerful neurotoxin known to man. This experiment had proven that Xeronine is an essential biochemical of good health, and a natural constituent of the body. Because of this, Xeronine had been preferentially taken up by the nerve tissue, totally blocking out the highly poisonous Tetrodotoxin, and provided not only
protection, but exceptionally good health and vigour as well.
Anti Cancer Activity
Anti Cancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia on Intraperitoneally Implanted Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Syngenic Mice.
A. Hirazumi, E. Furusawa, S.C. Chou and Y. Hokama Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc. 37 : 145-146 (1994)
This is very significant study by a team of researchers from the University of Hawaii led by Annie Hirazumi. Ms. Hirazumi became interested in the study of the Morinda citrifolia fruit, because of earlier experiences with its amazing qualities. Her father helped a good friend with the juice of the Noni, and later Annie administered the pure Noni juice to a pet dog who was dying. The dog recovered miraculously, and Annie set out a find out more about this incredible fruit. The study by Ms. Hirazumi and her colleagues was conducted on live laboratory mice (specifically C57BL/6 mice) specifically identified as very receptive to injected with active Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells (LLC). Untreated, the mice died from 9-12 days after injection from the tumor growth. A portion of the injected mice were treated with Noni juice in five separate daily treatments. The Noni juice was shown to significantly increase the life span of the treated mice (from 105% 123%) with 9 of the 22 mice surviving for more than 50 days. The experiment was repeated on a different lot of mice with similar results. The Research Team concluded that the Noni juice seems to act indirectly by enhancing host immune system involving macrophages and / or lymphocytes.
Induction of Normal Phenotypes in RAS transformed cells by Damnacanthal from
T. Hiramatsu, M. Imoto. T. Koyano. K. Umezawa Cancer Letters 73 (1993) 161-166
In this study, a team of Japanese researchers studied the effect of over 500 extracts from tropical plants on the K-ras-NRK cell (a
precursor to certain types of cancer). The compound damnacanthal found in the Morinda citrifolia (Noni) was found to be an inhibitor of Ras function. The research : Ras cells were seeded into % plates
and incubated at 33oC for 24 hours. The Morinda citrifolia plant extract was added and the cell morphology was examined everyday
for five days.
The Ras function was inhibited by the injected plant extract. This same compound has been found to inhibit the Epstein – Barr virus early antigen activation. The extract from the Morinda citrifolia
was found to be most effective in inhibiting Ras function among the 500 tested extracts.
Anti Cancer Activity
Analgesic and Behavioural Effects of Morinda citrifolia C. Younos,
A. Holland, J. Fleurentin, M. Lanhers, R. Misslin, F. Mortier Planta Medica 56 (1990) 430-434.
In this study, the team lead by French scientist Chafique Younos, tested the analgesic and sedative effects of extracts from the
Morinda citrifolia plant. They were aware of the traditional use of
plant as a general analgesic, and set out to determine if those claims were valid. The extract was shown to be non-toxic and did
“show a significant, dose-related, central analgesic activity in the treated mice.” This study included various experiments on the treated mice to determine the analgesic effects, if any, from the plant extracts of the Morinda citrifolia. The conclusion of these researchers was that the extract did, in fact demonstrate analgesic effects consistently in each experiment. The conclusion of this study included a simple statement from the authors : “These findings validate the traditional analgesic properties of this plant”. The above represent only a sample of the research completed on the Morinda citrifolia plant. The results are conclusive in each case in showing the validity of the traditional use of Noni.
Steven M. Hall M.D.
This is form Steven M. Hall M.D. who on January 7, 1997 reported the following results : A 75 y/o male with metastatic prostate cancer, most recent PSA of 55, 1 added… Noni to his conventional treatment regimen and within 2 weeks, his PSA was
1.1.2 (emphasis added) There is simply nothing else I am aware of that could possibly reduce Prostatic Specific Antigen from 55 (indicating uncontrolled cancer) to a normal LI, and do it in just 2 weeks.
Phytochemicals reverse cancer
The power of phytochemicals to promote good health and control cancer is so impressive that the University of Illinois has created a whole new department with 63 scientists and professors to specialize in phytochemical research. Let me share with you some of the scientific findings leading to this major change in research.
Senior Science Advisor to the U.S. Public Health Service, Dr. D.L. Davis states, “Phytochemicals can take tumors and defuse them. They can turn-off the proliferative process of cancer.” At Ohio State University’s Cancer Prevention Laboratory. Dr. Mark Morse and colleagues found that phytochemicals in broccoli known as sulforaphane could reduce esophageal tumor incidence by as much as 40% and reduce the multiplication of such cancer cells by 90%. Dr. Paul Taladay working at John Hopkins Medical Institute has found that this same phytochemicals protected animals from getting cancer even when exposed to cancer-causing chemicals. According to Dr. Joseph Hotchkiss of Cornell University, the phytochemicals coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid are able to eliminate many cancer-causing substances from the body. An epidemiologist at the University of Minnesota. Dr. John Potter, told Newsweek Magazine, ‘At almost every step along the pathway to cancer, phytochemicals slow up or reverse the process.’ Most of these phytochemicals studied so far are found in ordinary vegetables and culinary herbs. The problem is the amount in these foods is so low that only if you eat a lot of them to a long time will they give you protection. If you already have cancer, what you need is a plant that has these phytochemicals in large enough amounts to go right to work.
Noni is a treasure chest of phytochemicals
When plant scientists at the U.S. Department of Agriculture studied the amazing Morinda citrifolia plant they quickly found the secret to its amazing health building power. It is endowed with a greater number and variety of health-giving phytochemicals than just about any plant known. Dr. James A. Duke is one of the world’s most highly respected scientific authorities on herbs and their phytochemical content. In his authoritative CRC Handbook on Phytochemicals he has listed 23 different phytochemicals found in Noni as well as 5 vitamins and 3 minerals. Research on Noni continues at an ever-increasing pace with more of its phytochemicals being uncovered all the time. It is the incredible power of these phytochemicals that are producing the wonderful health building results doctors and patients are now seeing as a result of using this amazing fruit. As safe to use as any fruit on the market.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, as well as the Department of Agriculture maintain a list of plants that have no known harmful ingredients and which over the test of time with large numbers of people have proven themselves to be safe for human consumption by the general population. This is known as the GRAS list, and it stand for Generally Recognized As Safe. Based on the fact that after careful scientific analysis no harmful ingredients were found, and the Polynesian people have been using this health building herb without harm for thousands of years. Noni has been officially designed as generally recognized as safe.
Even though Noni is extremely safe, I would always suggest that the introduction of a new herb into the diet be approached with caution by anyone known to have food sensitivities, allergies, or asthma. I would also caution a woman who is pregnant or nursing to consult her physician before using Noni or any other herb.
How Noni helps the body fight off cancer.
Researchers at the University of Hawaii School of Medicine introduced cells containing a strain of lung cancer known as Lewis Lung Carcinoma into a group of mice, especially bred to the highly susceptible to this type of cancer. Within 9 to 12 days the mice which were given no Noni were all dead as a result to the growth of the tumor. However, another group of these same mice were given an extract of the Morinda citrifolia fruit on five different occasions. At the end of the 12 days when all the untreated mice were dead, those given the Noni were still alive and doing well. At the end of 24 days, the Noni treated mice were all still going strong, this was a 100% extension of life. Actually 40% which is 9 out of the 22 mice given the Noni, survived for more than 50 days. This is a life span more than a times greater than the longest-living mouse not receiving the Noni. This is an incredible achievement. Now remember, these were not just any mice, these mice were specifically breed to succumb to this form of cancer. In this regard, they were “genetically doomed” to be cancer victims. Yet in spite of this, a simple Noni extract gave these mice as much as a time the life span of their untreated relatives.
How Noni did it?
I know you are excited about what you just read as I am, but the best part may be how Noni made this incredible achievement possible. Most people would just assume something in the Noni had killed the cancer cells. But like all good scientists, the researchers at the University of Hawaii School of Medicine wanted to know exactly how Noni had accomplished. What they found was quite surprising and very important. They discovered that there was nothing in their Noni extract that killed the cancer cells. What they discovered was that there was a polysaccharide compound (6-D-glucopyranose pentadactylate) found in the Noni that increased the ability of the immune system to produce chemicals that enhanced the killing power of the white blood cells.
Do you realize the great significance of that discovery? You see white blood cells have to kill many things besides cancer cells. They have to defend us against virus, bacteria, yeast, amoeba, parasites and all types of invaders. Since this Noni polysaccharide worked by increasing the overall killing power of the white blood cells, this means it will most likely enhance that same killing power against any invader. It indicates Noni is very likely an overall immune enhancing substance that may provide that little extra, which gives you the winning edge when some invading organism attacks your body.
More cancer-fighting power is found
Japanese scientists were looking for a substance to fight cancer. They searched through over 500 different extracts from tropical plants looking for something, which would inhibit the growth of RAS cancer cells. These are particular types of fast-growing and very malignant cancer cells that are hard to stop. Reporting in the journal Cancer Letters, the scientists stated that the Noni extract was by far the most effective at inhibiting and normalizing RAS transformed cancer cells. RAS is a normal part of the cell structure in every cell. It is a small protein that is part of the RNA of the cell and encodes for the reproduction of the cell. Only when it is activated by a carcinogenic protein within the cell does it trigger the cells to reproduce wildly. If you can turn off this uncontrolled RAS activity, you stop the cancers growth 8, 9. What the Japanese scientists found was that one of the phytochemicals in the Noni extract does exactly that. They found that it was the phytochemical in the Noni extract, which goes by the fancy name of Damnacanthal that does this. When they added the Noni extract to RAS activated cancer cells they observed them daily for five days. What they saw was incredible.
They reported that slowly, day by day the cells began to change their morphology (cell structure) back to normal. It is only on the basis of this kind of hard science that doctors can rely upon the ability of a plant extract to produce the return to good health now being seen clinically by people who have been struggling with cancer. No one knows if Noni will produce a return to good health for any specific person, but the research shows there is a scientific basis for believing that it is possible. The above represent only a sample of the research completed on the Morinda citrifolia plant. The results are conclusive in each case in showing the validity of the traditional use of the Noni.
Recent Scientific Research on Morinda Citrifolia
Science verifies the tradition of Herbal and natural products that have been used for centuries throughout the world in every culture. The scientific community has begun to, show more and more interest in these products as the benefits become even more known. Noni began to catch the eye of researchers worldwide early in this century, and one by one, studies have revealed the amazing qualities of the Morinda Citrifolia fruit.
This document contains a brief summary and interpretation of some studies which are important in understanding the value of this plant. This document will, not attempt to reproduce each study found or reprint verbatim each study cited. This information is
provided in the hope that people everywhere may become better familiar with the amazing properties of the Morinda citrifolia fruit.
Dr Ralph Heinicke: Xeronine and Cell Regeneration
As a research in Hawaii Dr. Ralph Heinicke became aware of the marvelous benefits of the Morinda citrifolia Fruit and set out to find the pharmacologically active ingredient of the Noni. Dr. Heinicke had spent over 45 years studying the effects of an alkaloid he discovered and named xeronine. Xeronine is a relatively small alkaloid that is physiologically very active and important for the proper function of all cells in the body.
In this research, Dr. Heinicke discovered, that the Noni juice contacts appreciable amounts of the precursor of xeronine that he name “proxeronine”. “Proxeronine” releases pure xeronine in the intestines when it comes in contact with a particular enzyme also found in the Noni juice. Dr. Heinicke’s theory, is that when released, xeronine actually works at the molecular level to repair damaged cells.
Dr. Heinicke states that the primary function of Xeronine is to regulate the rigidity and shape of specific proteins. Since these proteins have different functions within the cells, this explains how the administrations of Noni juice causes an unbelievably wide range of physiological responses.
A. Hirazumi, E. Furrasawa, S.C. Chou & Y. Hokama. Anticancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia on Intraperitoneally implanted Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Syngenic Mice. Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 37 : 145-146 (1994).
This is a very significant study by a team of researchers from the University of Hawaii led by Annie Hirazumi. Ms. Hirazumi became interested in the study of the Morinda citrifolia fruit because of earlier experiences with its amazing qualities. Her father helped a good friend with the juice of the Noni and later, Annie administered the pure Noni juice to a pet dog who was dying. The dog recovered miraculously, and Annie set out to find out more about this incredible fruit.
The study by Ms. Hirazumi and her colleagues was conducted on live laboratory mice (specifically C57B1/6 mice) specifically identified as very receptive to injected Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells. The mice were injected with active Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells (LLC). Untreated, the mice died from 9 – 12 days after injection from tumor growth. A portion of the injected mice were treated with Noni juice in five separate daily treatments. The Noni juice was shown to significantly increase the life span of the treated mice (from 105% – 123%) with 9 of 22 mice surviving for more than 50 days. The experiment was repeated on a different lot of mice with similar results.
The Research Team concluded that the Noni juice seems to act indirectly by enhancing host immune system involving macrophages and / or Iymphocytes
T. Hiramatsu, M. Imoto, T. Koyano, K. Umezawa Induction of Normal Phenotypes in RAS transformed cells by Damnacanthal from Morinda citrifolia. Cancer Letter 73 (1993) 161-166.
In this study, a team of Japanese researchers studied the effects of over 500 extracts from tropical plant on the K-ras NRK cell, (a pre-cursor to certain types of cancer). The compound, damnacanthal, found in the Morinda citrifolia (Noni), was to be an inhibitor of ras function.
The research : Ras cells were seeded into 96 plates and incubated at 33oC for 24 hours The Morinda citrifolia plant extract was added and the cell morphology was examined every day for 5 days. The Ras function was inhibited by the injected plant extract. This same compound has been found to inhibit the Epstein Barr virus earlyantigen activation. The extract from the Morinda citrifolia was found to be most effective in inhibiting Ras function among, the 500 Test extracts.
C. Younos, A. Rolland, J. Fluerentin, M. Lanhers, R. Misslin, F. Mortier. Analgesic and Behavirol Effects of Morinda citrifolia Planta Medica 56 1990 430-434.
In this study, the team lead by French scientist Chafique Younos, test the analgestic and sedative effects of extracts from the Morinda citrifolia Plant. They were aware of the traditional use of the plant as a general analgesic, and set out to determine if those claims were valid. The extract was shown to be non-toxic and did show significant dose related, central analgesic activity in the treated mice. This study included various experiments on the treated mice to determine the analgesic effect, if any, from the plant extracts of the Morinda citrifolia (Noni). The conclusion of these researchers was that the extract did in fact demonstrate analgesic effects consistently in each experiment. The conclusion of this study included a simple statement from the authors: A findings validate the traditional analgesic properties of this plant.
The above represent only a sample of the research completed on the Morinda citrifolia. The results are conclusive in each case in showing the validity of the traditional use of the Noni.
Research of the Morinda citrifolia plant has the following effects :
The Morinda citrifolia fruit seemed to retard tumor growth by stimulating the immune system. The compounds in Noni actually work at the cellular level to cause cell regeneration and increase cell function – Noni was shown to have significant impact on arresting the growth of implanted cancerous RAS cells.
It was also shown to have an analgesic effect.
It is effective against atleast seven different kinds of harmful bacteria.
It is a natural antiseptic.
It is effective against fungus and parasites.
Noni & Cancer
What is cancer?
Cancer is a cellular malfunction. When suffering from cancer, the human body loses normal cellular controls, which results in the malignant cells unregulated growth. These cancer cells have a lack of differentiation and invoke local tissue, travel elsewhere, and metastasize. The disease itself begins by one cell that mutates or changes. The abnormal cell maintains that mutation through the cell’s reproduction process despite the efforts of the human body’s defense system, which tries to eliminate abnormal cells. These mutated cells (resulting from abnormal DNA) then travel through the body, setting up residency in one or more of the body’s organs. There are now well over one hundred types of cancer that can exist within the human body.
Since there are so many types of cancer, each with their own abnormal DNA and different set of signs and symptoms, it is impossible in this short review to cover all of them. The most common symptom we observe is the loss of energy. In many different types of cancer such abnormalities as skin discoloration, non-healing sores, detectable lumps under the skin, elevated temperature and weight loss, are often associated with many other signs and symptoms. Most types of cancer start subtly and can only be properly diagnosed early on by having regular medical check ups and specific testing. The earlier a cancer is detected and treated, the better the outcome.
The Power of NONI!
Noni’s effect on cancer most likely deals with the fact that both Noni and cancer work on a cellular level. It is further believed that Noni enhances cellular structure while cancer, of course, destroys it. One of Noni’s key components, Proxeronine, is sent to “sick” cells within the body by the Golgi apparatus and reticuloendothelium. These sick cells attract Proxeronine and an enzyme, Proxeroninease. The interaction creates Xeronine, a cellular enhancer.
Several other studies have been performed in laboratories in order to validate Morinda citrifolia’s cancer-fighting abilities. In one such study, four Japanese scientists injected RAS cells (cells that are precursors to many malignant growths) with a substance called Damnacanthal found in Morinda citrifolia. They observed that the injection significantly inhibited the RAS cells from reproducing. Proxeronine and Damnacanthal are substances within Morinda citrifolia that are believed to be anti-cancer agents. In addition, research has revealed that Noni helps stimulate the body’s production of other cancer-fighting elements such as nitric oxide, interleukins, interferon, tumor necrosis factor, lipopolysaccharides, and natural killer cells.
It is believed by some that Morinda citrifolia might exert a preventive and protective action against cancer during the initiation stage, which is the first phase of the formation of cancer. A study performed by Mian-Ying Wang, M.D., at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford, showed that mice which were given a solution of 10 percent Noni for a week and then injected with DMBA, a known cancer causing agent, had significantly lower DNA adduct markers (a test for abnormal DNA) than DMBA-injected mice fed with only water. The lower the number of DNA adduct markers, the more protection one has against fighting cancer. The Noni-fed mice had 50 percent fewer DNA markers in the lungs than the water-fed mice without Noni, 60 percent fewer markers in the heart, 70 percent fewer in the liver, and 90 percent fewer in the kidneys. Therefore, Noni gave the greatest protection from cancer to the kidneys (90 percent) and the least protection to the lungs (50 percent).
Excerpts from a report by Dr. Aleksandra Niedzwiecki
Cancer Research Report Berlin “Codex” Health Symposium
November 28, 2001
Edited by John Sargent, Edu.K., T.F.H., C.N.M.
Cancer is the most feared of all diseases. If a doctor tells you “you have cancer” it sounds like death sentence.
Not many are lucky to survive a devastating cancer treatment. Every year about 500,000 people die of
cancer. As we are sitting here, every minute one person dies of this fearful disease. Searching for a cancer cure costs us a great deal of money, but the cure is not even in sight. Why have we not succeeded? What strategy have we implemented ?
It is a war strategy: we attack our body with weapons of destruction to kill cancer cells. We use toxic chemicals, nuclear radiation, what is not killed
is removed by surgery….
All these measures destroy our entire body, sick and healthy cells alike and create new diseases. But an answer to cancer can be found in our body.
Let’s look at the stages of cancer growth. Cancer cells develop in our body all the time during our entire life, whether we are young or old. Even/day, every minute a cell loses an internal mechanism to control its own growth. But the body can recognise and eliminate such abnormal cells. But sometimes a cell manages to escape and starts to multiply endlessly, first forming a local tumour which then expands and spreads to other organs in the body
One mechanism that cancer cells use to expand in the bodyis through digesting their surroundings. This mechanism was described by 1 Rath in his book on cancer. Cancer cells produce and secrete millions of enzyme molecules, which, like scissors. cut collagen and tissue that surrounds cells.
This picture shows how liver cancer cells use these enzymes to cut little holes in the blood vessel wall and get to the blood stream where they can travel to other organs, such as the lungs. Using the same mechanism, cancer cells can settle there and start new tumour growth.
This stage, called metastasis, is the most dangerous stage of cancer. If a tumour stays one place it rarely endangers our life. But about 90% of cancer deaths are results of metastases, when a tumour invades various organs in the body.
But it must be natural mechanisms that can keep cells in place and prevent the spread of cancer. Dr Rath suggested that our body can use lysine, a natural amino acid, to block the action of collagen digesting enzymes. He published his findings in 1992, and here, can see a manuscript of his work.
This picture shows how lysine blocks the enzyme’s ability to digest collagen by just binding
to it. If there is enough
lysine to block enzyme
molecules the movement of
cells through the tissue can
practically stop. I want to
emphasise the words “enough
lysine”. This is very important,
because Lysine, like vitamin
C, cannot be produced in our body. We can only get it from the diet, therefore deficiency of lysine is likely. This means that our body’s ability to control collagen digestion can be compromised if intake of lysine is too low.
(Editor’s Note : Through the use of a good healthy diet, supplements and a good digestive system the proper uptake of lysine is procured. Taking Tahitian Noni® juice assists this greatly.)
This graph shows that in the presence of lysine only 16% of cancer cells can move through collagen. This inhibitory effect is even more pronounced in the presence of additional nutrients such as vitamin C and proline.
Currently we are testing other nutrients and getting
remarkable results which we will communicate to you soon. We anticipate that we should be able to stop the spread of cancer cells completely.
(Editor’s note : The exciting news is that our researchers have found the answers. Dr. Mian-Ying Wang, M.D., University of Illinois has presented, since this article was written, a report to the American Cancer Society, that she has found that Tahitian Noni ® juice has and can stop the transition of cancer cells from the DNA stage to the cellular stage. The anti-oxidant effect of Tahitian Noni® juice is phenomenal.)
(Editors Note : Tahitian Noni® juice is a 40 times stronger anti-oxidant than
Vitamin C therefore not only has the same fighting capabilities but supports healthy cell growth. Now you can see where Noni begins to work at the cellular level.)
Perhaps you want to ask which types of cancer cells can be stopped by Lysine and other nutrients.
Very good question. We tested various kinds of cancer cells all of which responded to this treatment: you can see that an invasion of breast cancer cells can be inhibited by 56%, colon cancer by 60%.
Melanoma, very aggressive skin cancer was the most
sensitive: cells invasion could be inhibited by 85% , which means that these cells can be
practically confined to one
place and stop expanding.
(Editor’s Note : You will see where Doctor Niedzwiecki talks about the amino acid Lysine. This is found in the foods that we eat and is converted to the workable amino acid when digested properly.)
One Mechanism that cancer cells use to expand in the body is through digesting their ” surroundings. This mechanism was described by Dr. Rath in his book on cancer Cancer cells produce and secrete millions of enzyme molecules, which, like scissors cut collagen and tissue that surrounds cells. This picture shows how liver cancer cells use these enzymes to cut little holes in the blood vessel wall and get to the blood stream where they can travel to other.
Organs, such as the lungs.
Using the same mechanism, cancer cells can settle there and start new tumor growth.
This stage, called metastasis, is the most dangerous stage of cancer. If a tumor stays in one place it rarely endangers our life. But about 90% of
cancer deaths are results of metastases, when a tumor invades various organs in the body.
But it must be natural mechanisms that can keep cells in place and prevent the spread of cancer. Dr. Rath suggested body can use lysine, a natural amino
acid, to block the action of
collagen digesting . He
published his findings in
1992, and here you can see a
manuscript of his work.
This picture shows how lysine blocks the enzyme’s ability to digest collagen by just binding to it. If there is enough lysine to block enzyme molecules the movement of cells through the tissue can practically stop. I want to emphasise the words “enough lysine”. This is very important, because Lysine, like vitamin C, cannot be produced in our body. We can only get it from the diet, therefore deficiency of lysine is likely. This means that our body’s ability to control collagen digestion can be compromised if intake of lysine is too low.
(Editor’s Note : Though the use of good healthy diet, supplements and a good digestive system the proper uptake of lysine is procured. Taking Noni assists this greatly.
This graph shows that in the presence of lysine only 16% of cancer cells can move through collagen. This inhibitory effect is even more pronounced in the presence of additional nutrients such as vitamin C and proline.
Currently we are testing other
nutrients and getting remarkable results which we will communicate to you soon. We anticipate that we should be able to stop the spread of cancer cells completely.
Editor’s Note : The exciting news is that our researchers have found the answers. Dr. Mian-
Ying Wang, M.D. University
of Illinois has presented,
since this article was written,
We are proud of these findings, which confirm that cellular medicine offers solutions for the most critical process in cancer development, the invasion of cancer to other organs in the body. Conventional medicine is powerless in this.
Conventional cancer treatments destroy cancer cells in various parts of the body but at the same time they kill healthy cells, Even more, something this treatment stimulates new cancers in the body.
We also made another important contribution in this area. We have found natural a treatment that is not harmful to healthy cells in the body while it is effective in destroying cancer cells.
(Editor’s Note : The work of Dr. Anne Hirazumi-Kim and others have shown that the 154 phyto-nutrients of Tahitian Noni® juice have these powerful effects and are moving ahead much faster than any other researchers could have imagined.)
Cellular medicine is the medicine of the future in all stages of cancer:
Prevention : healthy diet and supplements enhance cancer defense mechanisms in the body. Conventional medicine is not interested in prevention unless drugs can be used.
Tumor growth: natural substances can be effective in eliminating abnormal cancer cells without destroying healthy cells.
Radiation and chemotheraphy contribute to new cancers and the disease spreads.
Metastasis : Cellular medicine offers effective and
safe solutions to curb the invasion of cancer in the body by use of lysine and other natural molecules. This area is not much investigated by the pharmaceutical companies